Today, stage speech is an important component of all the programs of teaching acting skills without exception. This is one of the professional means of expression of the actor. Stage speech is also a means of theatrical embodiment of a dramatic work. Through the skill of speech, the actor transmits the inner world, social, psychological, national, domestic character traits to the viewer. To do this, the artist needs to thoroughly master the technique, which is associated with sonority, flexibility, volume of voice, development of breathing, clarity and clarity of pronunciation (diction), intonational expressiveness.
Style and character of stage speech passed the period of formation from antiquity to today. On this way they changed their form and content, developing and improving themselves. So, the skill of scenic speech was honed in ancient Greece by speakers and actors. The most famous example, perhaps, is to consider the research of Demosthenes. Exercising himself in eloquence, he devoted much time to practicing oratory, but spoke vaguely, for which he was constantly subjected to ridicule on the part of his counterparts and ordinary listeners. Quite desperate, he turned for advice to a friend - a famous theater actor. The last one read before Demosthenes a fragment from the work of Sophocles so expressive and lively that he realized - it is important not only speech, but also pronunciation, timbre and strength of voice. Demosthenes, unfortunately, did not possess these qualities: he had a weak voice, he lisped and breathed intermittently.
The speaker began to work on his shortcomings. He uttered speeches, standing on the edge of a cliff near the sea, overcoming the sound of waves and gusts of wind. In his mouth Demosthenes held small stones, pronounced long phrases and whole sentences without inhaling. For several months he went down into the cave and there he talked, listening to his voice. Classes gave the result - today we are talking about Demosthenes as the greatest orator of the ancient world.
Speaking about the modern theater, we mean the flowering of realistic art, which is connected mainly with the Russian theater, and such names as M. Shchepkin, A. Ostrovsky, K. Stanislavsky. In the actor's last system of work on the role, techniques were used to help the actor uncover not only the meaning of the text, but also the subtext of spoken words, capture, convince partners and viewers "verbal action."
Stanislavsky said: "The word is the most concrete exponent of human thought." Expressiveness of this word the great playwright devoted three sections in the second volume "The work of the actor above himself": singing and diction; speech and its laws; tempo rhythm. Below we have collected exercises, both on the basis of Stanislavsky's recommendations, and other techniques and techniques that will help to put and develop stage speech.
Technique of speech: tips and exercises
Visiting various seminars, trainings, conferences, classes (lectures at the university and lessons at school), you probably paid attention to such an interesting fact: at some events you literally want to sleep - and the topic is boring, and the voice of the lecturer is monotonously lulling. On the other, everything is diametrically opposed - the watch's never-ending interest and the orator's rich speech. Most often, this is not the semantic fullness of information, but the way it is served. A story without emotions, a monotonous muttering "under the nose," the lack of intonation can ruin any performance. The way a person speaks, sometimes becomes an additional motivation to listen to him and deal with him. This is an important communication skill, not only for stage actors, but also for many, whose sphere of employment is connected with communication, training, sales.
The development of the technique of stage speech implies, first of all, work on the voice. The voice is a complex phenomenon in which certain muscle groups and the psychophysical apparatus of a person are involved. The sound of a voice depends on the breathing, emotional and physical state of a person, so speech training involves a set of diverse exercises. This is work on breathing, articulation, sound, diction.